Saturday, December 29, 2012

Reading Exam: 4th Year General

Alexandria University 4th Year General
Faculty of Education         Reading
Department of English 1 hour and a half
Number of Pages: 4

Do Obese Kids Become Obese Adults?

If you are concerned that your child's weight has ballooned into a more serious problem, join the dub. About 18% of American children aged 6 to 19 are now overweight, and childhood obesity rates are rising around the world. But what does early overweight mean for youngsters in adulthood: will overweight kids necessarily become overweight — and unhealthy — grown-ups? Epidemiologist David Freedman from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity studies that question. Though the science has been less than conclusive about the precise health risk factors obese children will face in the future, Freedman's research shows at least one dear link: obesity persists, from childhood on. He states that it depends somewhat on the definition of childhood overweight and obesity, and it also depends on the age of the child. For example, an overweight or obese adolescent is much more likely to become an obese adult than is an overweight one-year-old. But even down to the youngest ages; age five, overweight five-year-olds may have a tenfold increased risk of becoming obese adults compared to relatively thin five-year-olds.

The largest study of cardiovascular-disease risk factors done in the U.S. is the Bogalusa Heart Study. Bogalusa is a community about 100 km northeast of New Orleans. This is a small town — maybe the population is about 20,000 — and the study was started in the early 1970s, primarily by Dr. Gerald Berenson. All the children in this town were examined for lipids, blood pressure, weight and height, skin-fold thicknesses, smoking, alcohol consumption — anything that might be related to heart disease in adulthood. Of those children, the ones who had a body mass index (or BMI, a ratio of weight to height that's commonly used to define overweight) in the 95th percentile or higher when compared to a CDC reference population — as 18% of American children now have — about two-thirds grew up to be very obese as adults, with a BMI of 35 or higher.

There is very suggestive evidence from the Bogalusa Heart Study to show that childhood obesity is related not just to weight, but also to poor health in adulthood. When the first children  in the study became older adolescents, particularly when they began driving, there were some deaths, due to suicide, homicide and accidents, so the amount of atherosclerosis in their coronary arteries and aorta was examined. The first paper on this issue was published in the mid '80s. It was certainly the first paper to show that high levels of lipids — and obesity — were related to the very earliest stages of atherosclerosis.

But in terms of clinical complications of cardiovascular disease the cohort really hasn't aged enough for us to study that The oldest subjects in the study now, who were examined as children, are about 45. Still, there have been probably at least a dozen studies that have been able to do this around the world. Many studies have been conducted in England, but in all honesty the results have been somewhat conflicting. Some studies found a slightly increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Some studies —! but not all of them — have found an increased risk of mortality. Part of the reason for these discrepancies is that to obtain results from these long-term longitudinal studies, many have to use baseline measurements that were taken in the '50s and '60s. And kids who were examined back then were much, much thinner than kids are now. Even children who would have been considered relatively heavy then are not much heavier than average children now, at least in the U.S. So in terms of studying the complications of childhood obesity, those studies have limitations.

Adapted from:
By Laura Blue
Section One: True/False (40 marks)

Indicate whether the following sentences are True or False. Correct fake sentences:
  1. The percentage of overweight American kids is 81%.
  2. Research has definite results about the health risks obese children will face in the future.
  3. An overweight adolescent is unlikely to turn into an obese adult.
  4. Childhood obesity rates are not decreasing.
  5. His population of Bogalusa is 200,000.
  6. BMI is the ratio of weight to height.
  7. According to the Bogalusa Heart Study, childhood obesity is related entirely to poor health in adulthood.
  8. Many studies of cardiovascular diseases have been conducted in France.
  9. Or. David Freedman conducted the Bogalusa Heart study.
  10. The article concludes that studies of childhood obesity have limitations.
Section Two: Comprehension Questions (40 marks)

Answer the following questions:
  1. What is the age range of American children who suffer from obesity?
  2. When did the Bogalusa study start?
  3. What are the results of the Bogalusa cardiovascular study?
  4. What is the main idea of paragraph 3 ?
  5. Summarize David Freedman's research on childhood obesity.
  6. What are the causes of atherosclerosis?
  7. What are the clinical complications of cardiovascular disease?
  8. Where is Bogalusa?
Section Three: Discussion Questions (20 marks)

Write a short paragraph ( maximum 10 lines) stating your opinion on the following topic

In your opinion, what is the role of the parents in helping children overcome and avoid the problem of overweight.

Section Four: Vocabulary (20 marks)

Choose the right meaning of the following words/phrases taken from the text:

1. join the club (line 2)

  • a) become a member in a club
  • b) be a member in a social group
  • c) be in the same situation

2. obesity (line 3)
  • a) ideal weight
  • b) overweight
  • c) underweight
3. Epidemiologist (line 6)

  • a) the scientist who studies the prevalence of diseases
  • b) the scientist who studies hereditary diseases
  • c) the scientist who studies skin diseases

4. cardiovascular disease (line )

  • a) stomach disease
  • b) blood disease
  • c) heart disease

5. homicide (line )

  • a) killing one's self
  • b) killing another person
  • c) killing animals

Good Luck