Faculty of Education January, 2004
Phonetics and Grammar
PART ONE: PHONETICS
1- Allophonic variations have a part to play in the process of communication. Discuss the above statement.
2- What is meant by voice onset time (VOT)? Which category of sounds is affected by this phenomenon? How?
3- Discuss and illustrate with examples the structure of the English syllable.
4- The process of assimilation makes two sound similar in at least one phonetic feature. Explain the above statement.
PART TWO: GRAMMAR
1. Do as shown in brackets and add the necessary changes : (10 marks)
a) International hostilities sometimes continue for long periods of time without being acknowledged as wars. (Add a noun complement)b) It begins with a ceremony known as a wedding, which formally unites the marriage partners. (Identify the adjective complement)c) Scholars who study human culture and society disagree on whether marriage can be universally defined. (Identify the noun complement)d) Color, derived from any of numerous organic or synthetic substances, is applied to various surfaces to create a representational or abstract picture or design, (change to active)e) American football is interesting. (Add an adjective complement)
2. Edit the use of complex passive in the following paragraph: (5 marks)
Efforts to systematize knowledge can be traced to prehistoric times, through the designs that Paleolithic people painted on the walls of caves, through numerical records that were carved in bone or stone, and through artifacts surviving from Neolithic civilizations. The oldest written records are known to be derived from Mesopotamian cultures, lists of astronomical observations, chemical substances, and disease symptoms, as well as a variety of mathematical tables, were believed that were inscribed in cuneiform characters on clay tablets. Other tablets dating from about 2000BC show that the Babylonians had knowledge of the Pythagorean theorem, solved quadratic equations, and developed a hexadecimal system of measurement. Papyri documents have being been discovered in the Nile Valley, containing information on the treatment of wounds and diseases, on the distribution of bread and beer, and on finding the volume of a portion of a pyramid.