Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Methodology: Part One (The Strategies and Theories)


They are methods, approaches or ways of thinking. They are eight approaches in methodology.
  1. The Grammar-Translation Approach
  2. The Direct Approach
  3. The Audio-lingual Method
  4. The Cognitive Approach
  5. The Silent Way   
  6. The Community Language Learning
  7. The Total Physical Response
Methodology is the system that talks about how to teach.

I. The Grammar-Translation Approach (Classical/Traditional Method)

This approach is not new. It was first used in the teaching of the classical languages, Latin and Greek.

The Principles of the Approach:
  1. An important goal for students is to be able to translate each language into the other. (Translation)
  2. Deductive application of an explicit grammar rule is a useful teaching technique. (Grammar)
    • That is, students are given the grammar rules and examples, are told to memorize them, and then are asked to apply them to other examples.
    • For example, the teacher gives students the rule; I+am+v.+ing = The present continuous. Then he translate every single word to the mother tongue and gives students examples for the rule. Then, he asks them only to memorize and never tell them hoe they will use the rule
    • # Inductive: means that the teacher will give examples and asks students to extract and guess the rule. Then, students only apply it.
  3. The teacher extracts new words from the text and translate them in isolation regardless of the content. (Vocabulary).
  4. The primary skill to be developed is reading. The teacher teaches the language to translate every single word in the text literally and to get the grammar rules. He considers the reading skill as an example of the grammar rules he discusses.
  5. Explanation and contraction are conducted in the mother tongue.
  6. Almost no attention is given to pronunciation.
Questions:

1. What are the goals of teachers who use the Grammar- Translation Method?
  • According to the teachers who use the Grammar- Translation Method, a fundamental purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature written in the target language. 
  • To do this, students need to learn about the grammar deductively.
  • Also, vocabulary of the target language is taught in isolation.
  • The teacher translates every single word literally.
  • He gives the knowledge of the language only without practicing it.
2. What is the role of the teachers? What is the role of the students?
  • The roles are very traditional. The teacher is the authority in the classroom and the source of knowledge. He dominates students and control them. Also, he never accepts negotiation.
  • Students are only receivers, and they are not allowed to contradict their teacher. They do as he says, so they can learn what he knows.
3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
  • Students are taught to translate every single word into their mother tongue. 
  • Students study grammar deductively, provided with rules and examples.
  • They are taught vocabulary in isolation regardless of the context.
  • The teacher is the only authority.
4. What is the nature of students-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
  • The interaction is one-sided. Most of the interaction in the classroom is from the teacher to the students. 
  • There is little student initiation and little student- students interaction.
5. How is the language viewed? How is culture viewed?
  • The language is viewed through the grammar rules and vocabulary in isolation.
  • Literary language is considered superior to spoken language. Culture is viewed as consisting of literature and the fine arts.
6. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
  • Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized. 
  • Reading and writing are the primary skills that the students work on. 
  • There is much less attention given to speaking and listening. Pronunciation receives littte, if any attention.
7. How is evaluation accomplished?
  • Written tests in which students are asked to translate from their native language to the target language or vice versa are often used.
  • Questions about the target culture, or questions that ask students to apply grammar rules are also common.
8. How does the teacher respond to students errors?
  • Having the students get the correct answer is considered very important. If students make errors or do not know an answer, the teacher supplies them with the correct answers.
  • As a result, students become hesitated, afraid and have no self-confidence.
9. It has been said that the Grammar-Translation Method teaches about the language, but not how to use it?
  • Concerning the Grammar-Translation Method, it just gives the rules and everything about the target language. This is called the deductive method. In this way, students are not asked to find out the rules of the target languages themselves, and they never learn to use it.
  • Concerning the other kind in which students learn to use language, the teaching methods is inductive. The teacher gives students examples, so that they can extract the grammar rules by themselves.
  • Gradually, language should be taught in community and teamwork. The teacher is two-sided. The teaching has to be with the target language. Grammatical rules should be taught inductively, not inductively. Everything should not be translated to the mother tongue.

II. The Direct Approach:

It comes as a reaction and response to the grammar-translation approach.

Characteristics of this Approach:
  1. The teacher teaches grammar in an inductive way. It means that the teacher gives the examples and asks the students to extract the rule.
  2. Teaching vocabulary is conducted in context. This means that everything has a meaning in class.
  3. Students never translate anything into the mother tongue or speak with it in the class.
  4. Reading is taught for pleasure and comprehension. This means that reading gives a great motivation to students.
  5. The teacher cares about oral skills like listening and speaking.
  6.  The teacher teaches for teaching itself and communication.
Questions:

1. What are the goals of teachers who use the Direct Approach?
The goal of the teacher is to communicate with students and to teach them how to use the language in a correct way.

2. What is the role of the teachers? What is the role of the students?
The teacher guides, directs and shows. The students guess, research and communicate.

3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
The teacher never uses the mother tongue. He focuses on communication. He cares about applying the rules, not memorizing them. There is no literal translation of vocabulary, and words do not have separate meaning.

4. What is the nature of students- teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
The interaction goes in both sides from the teacher to students and vice versa. The teacher also classifies the class into groups or pairs, so interaction between students is great.

5. How is the language viewed? How is culture viewed?
The target language is shown through everyday speech; for example, "When Hell freezes over," "Impossible," and "Over my dead body." All these expressions are equal in meaning, and are used in everyday speech. Culture is extracted from everyday  life, customs and traditions 

6. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
The teacher introduces the vocabulary in context, grammar in an inductive way and reading for pleasure. The teacher cares about oral skills like speaking and listening.    

7. How is evaluation accomplished?          
Oral exams like interviews are often used.

8. How does the teacher respond to students' errors?
The teacher lets students answer whatever they want first, and then he starts to repeat the answer in a right way. After that, he has students repeat the correct answer.

III. The Audio-lingual Method:

It is similar to the Direct Approach in oral-based instruction as both depend totally on oral skills like listening and speaking. Likewise, this approach depends ob communication.

Characteristics:
  • The teacher teaches grammar in dramatizing way. Dramatization means that the teacher presents a dialogue, play or story to which shows a grammar rule to the students. Then, they apply the example. The teacher never tell the students that this is the present continuous or the present simple. He leaves them to extract the rule themselves. Yet, the teacher must take care that the text contains only one tense and focuses on one grammatical item.
  • Drills: or meaningful repetition are used rapidly to make the students use the target language automatically.   
  • The teacher focuses on the point of pronunciation.
  • The teacher's movement should be systematical.
  • The teacher uses different gestures whether facial or bodily.
Questions:

1- What are the Goals of teachers who use the Audio-Lingual Approach?
  • Teacher's goals is to train the students to be independent and has self-confidence to stand by themselves.
2- What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of student?
  • The role of the teachers is to guide, direct and show.
  • Students are creators and start to produce by themselves since the teacher is only facilitator. They imitate drills in different ways and in a quick way.
3- What are the characteristics of the teaching learning process?
  • The teacher teaches one grammatical item.
  • Drills are used rapidly.
  • The new vocabulary is introduced in context by dramatizing it
  • The teacher creates dialogues and situation used everydays.
4- What is the nature of student/teacher in their interaction?
  • The interaction goes in both ways starting from the teacher to the students who produce the topic.
  • The interaction between students is great because they work in groups or in pairs.
5- What are areas of language are emphasized? What are the skills of the language?
  • Grammar in use - pronunciation -new vocabulary but in context.
  • Skills: listening and speaking.
6- How is evaluation accomplished?
  • The teacher does not care about written exams, but he care only about oral exams.
7- How does the teacher responds to the students errors?
  • The teacher gives students the chance to correct themselves. If a student does not know the correction, the teacher makes  his pair to correct his mistakes.
8- How is the language viewed? How is the culture viewed?
  • Language is presented through pronunciation and everyday speech.
  • Culture is extracted from our life and customs.

IV. Cognitive Approach:
  • This approach started in 1970 in U.S.A and ends in the same time. The time it started was the time it ended.
  • Its founders used the four skills: speaking, reading, writing, and listening. Yet, it is not known how they use the four skills together.
  • They also taught grammar deductively and inductively together. How? Nobody knows. 
  • Its method did not dvelop.
V. The Silent Way:

  • It started by a professor called Dr. Caleb Gattegne. He was from Egypt in Alexandria, but was a Greek origin. It is still used
  • In this approach, the teacher is 90% silent. He is the only one who give instructions. The power of his approach is that it raises the students to communication. The teacher is too powerful in a silent way.
  • The teacher gives students the chance to talk freely while he sits back and controls the class.
In this approach:
  1. The teacher should avoid using dialects. He only acres about pronunciation, stress and intonation. He doesn't care whether the accent is American or British. He is after the right pronunciation.
  2. The teacher creates simple linguistic situations. For example, "Could you drive me to the airport?" Everyone will create a similar request.
  3. The teacher divides the class into groups. He assign the role of each student in the group. For example: one is presenting; the other collects ideas; another writes; one edits; one keeps time.
  4. He give them after that the instructions of the topic and wait for 10 minutes. Then, he gives the meaning of certain gestures. and leaves everything to students. During this, he observes everything in silence without interfering except when they mistake. In this case, he lets the other group to correct it.  
  5. The teacher qualifies all skills
  6. He makes gestures used only in the situation.
  7. He observes only everything in the class except in the time of asking.
  8. The teacher in this way have the role to build in students the sense of independence and self-awareness.
The teacher's role is observing and facilitating in a silent way while students' is making dramatization.
The are of language is everyday speech while the skills emphasized are the four skills.
Evaluation is accomplished overall the class through looking to the portfolio.