Saturday, December 29, 2012

Conversation - Theoretical component


Session 1 - The cooperative principle and implicature
Source: Pragmatics (Peccei, 1999. pp. 25-32)

By the end of this session, students should be able to:


Gricean cooperative principle

Regardless of their background, participants will cooperate with each other in a conversation.

Gricean maxims
  • Relevance
  • Quantity 
  • Quality
  • Clarity
Failing to observe the maxims
  • Violating (quiet; not obvious to the hearer) ----> no implicatures
  • Flouting (obvious to the hearer) ----> implicatures
Friend A: You seem to be a coffee lover... What are your favorite flavors?
Friend B: I love chocolate cane, vanilla ice cream and orange juice.

Father: How's my son doing in the writing class?
Teacher: He’s such a sweet boy ... He doesn’t like to disturb his classmates ... Very quiet and obedient indeed.

Practice
  • Refer to Randell’s ESL Cyber Listening Lab: http://www.esl-lab.com/
  • Go through conversations and find 4 different instances in which maxims are not observed.
  • Quote the exact turns, providing enough context. Then, identify which of the maxims is not observed, specifying whether the maxim is violated or flouted.