Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Chapter 8. Supervision


Supervisors Are Important
  • They assess teachers both at pre-service and in-service levels. 
  • They influence student teachers in developmental terms. 
  • At the in-service stage, they are often the only source of teacher development available to practicing teachers. 
Roles of the Supervisor
  • good role model/good teacher
  • listener
  • Informant
  • Guide
  • Evaluator
  • Observer
Approaches to Supervision
  • Judgmental Supervision: emphasises the evaluative role of the supervisor
    • There is one right way of teaching decided by the supervisor.
    • The supervisor role is to speak, not to listen to the teacher.
    • The focus is on the teacher's weakness.
  • Developmental Supervision: emphasises on helping teachers to improve and grow.
  • Assessment is based on progress from one lesson to another.
  • Supervisors suggest alternatives rather than just giving one solution.Supervisors listen to teachers' views.Supervisors take note of and build on teachers' strengths.Assessment is based on progress from one lesson to another.
The Three Stage Model
  • The Pre-Lesson Stage
    • It depends on on the time available and varies according to the number of teachers supervised.
    • One reason is to find out teachers' intentions for the lesson by looking at their lesson plan or by running through a lesson planning checklist (lesson topic - lesson content - objectives  - materials - lesson development and closure - students).
    • It is useful for the following reasons:
      • To establish a shared understanding of the purposes of the observation. 
      • To put the teacher at ease. 
      • To find out about the teacher's intentions for the lesson. 
  • The Observation
    • It is the second phase of the teaching practice cycle. It it, the observer focuses on the targets set at the pre-lesson session and collects data for the teacher's attention which constitute a vital part of the teacher's teaching profile.
  • The Feedback Session
  • It is the final phase during which the teacher and observer look back at the lesson and the data gathered which should be presented in a non-judgmental manner, giving the teacher the chance to analyze it. 
  • The positive feedback should be given to create a good climate for further discussion and give a sense of accomplishment. 
  • The "good" points should be pointed out to the teacher while the "bad" ones should be given in the form of suggestions 
The HORACE Model:
A Guide to teacher Counselling:

  • Hearing: the supervisor needs to hear the input from the teacher. He cannot know everything about the class and what the teacher intends to do.
  • Observing: He should never interrupt the lesson.
  • Recording: No one Qbservational technique is in itself adequate. All techniques have their strengths and weaknesses. Supervisors should use a range of techniques which should be evaluated against the following criteria:
    • Relevance. Is the instrument useful to collect data?
    • Acceptability. Are teachers likely to accept its findings?
    • Comparability. Will different supervisors get similar results?
    • Economy. How long will it take you to learn to use it and to fill it? Is this an economical use of time?
  • Analyzing: transfer data into a form meaningful to the teacher.
  • Considering: means taking the time to review the evidence, again listening to the teacher before jumping in with criticism or praise. There may be specific reasons for teachers doing things in a certain way. Supervisors should consider not only his own perspective, but also the teacher's. 
  • Evaluating: teachers are evaluated against three criteria:
    • Individual level. Supervisors may have different standards for student teachers and for professional teachers.
    • System level. Supervisors want to see whether teachers fulfill the requirements of the educational system in Egypt (the curriculum as prescribed - children learning as supposed)
    • Professional level. Supervisors wants to see if the teacher teaches as a member of the teaching profession or not.
Learning to Teach         
  • Supervisors cannot really help teachers unless they have a good understanding of how teachers learn to teach.
  • Thornton's Life cycle studies, which describe the stages teachers pass through in their careers, are one way of trying to describe how teachers become competent.
  • As a supervisor, one need to give different types of guidance to teachers at different stages in their careers.  
Stages of Teacher Development
  1. Novice: focus on classroom survival by acquiring individual techniques. Their planning is short-term and detailed.
  2. Advanced Beginner: The teachers manages to acquire classroom routines which they can apply automatically. They look for new techniques and ways of making of interesting teaching.
  3. Competent: They focus on ways of improving student learning.
  4. Proficient: Teachers have an intuitive grasp of the best way of organizing the learning experiences for students. They can appreciate decision ­making in the classroom based on a number of variables (time of day - children's feeling) and know there is not necessarily one right answer to every question in teaching.
  5. Expert: They have the ability to anticipate classroom events rather than simply react to them. They teach in an effortless and fluid way, and their planning has much more flexible attitude.
  • Burnout: Teachers may become so stressed that they have little motivation or enthusiasm to improve themselves.

Mentoring: Mentoring is a process by which an older and more experienced person takes a younger colleague. It was traditionally used to describe the experienced teacher, but turns to signify a new role for the supervisors.