Language Learning Strategies
- Age: The subject of a great deal of research. Younger may better in the long run, but older is faster at first.
- Sex: Some research says girls are better language learners.
- Social Background: Is a factor that can affect language learning.
- Affective: related to feelings and emotions.
- Motivation: a drive or stimulus which pushes you to do something.Intrinsic:: from inside the learner (Instrumental e.g. to get a better job - Integrative e.g. identifying with the country of the language being learnedExtrinsic: external to the learner (e.g. the course book, teacher).Motivated learners learn better.
- Attitude: A positive attitude enhances learning.
- Anxiety: Debilitating (anxiety which is so great that it interfere with thought or action. It is a negative factor in language learning). Facilitating (a level of anxiety which motivates one to learn or do better. It enhances language learning).
- Learning styles: An individual's preferred way of learning. Learners may learn best through: Hearing (Auditory learners); Seeing (Visual learners); touching (Tactile learners); Whole body movement (Kinesthetic learners).
- NB: There are other possible ways of classifying learning styles.
- Relating to the processing of thought and knowledge.
- Aptitude: Some children have a natural talent for language learning, but all children can learn.
- Learning Strategies: Behaviours individuals use to help them learn.
- Metacognitive: planning, monitoring and evaluating one's learning
- Cognitive: making mental or physical images, grouping, taking notes
- Social/Affective: interacting with others, cooperating, asking questions
- Rabbica Oxford:
- Memory-related: Using imagery, movement, rhyming to enhance memory
- Cognitive: Any information processing strategy, e.g. practicing, reasoning, analyzing, taking notes
- Compensatory: using gestures, mime, or guessing to get meaning across
- Metacognitive: Planning, organizing, monitoring, evaluation
- Affective: Reducing anxiety strategies such as encouraging/ rewarding yourself
- Social: Asking questions, cooperating with peers
- Levine and McCloskey (1998) identify four strategies that children use in learning a foreign language. They are:
- Generalization: perceiving patterns, make guesses and hypotheses about the rules
- Inductive reasoning: inducing a general rule that govern certain examples
- Transfer: extending the rules of L1 to L2.
- Avoidance: avoiding words and structures not yet learned, and using one-word utterances, gestures, or "circumlocution" to convey meaning instead.
- Multiple Intelligences Theory:They are many different types of intelligence not just one.
- Bodily-Kinesthetic: the ability to use the body to express ideas, feelings, and to solve problems, e.g. role-playing.
- Linguistic: the ability to use oral and written language effectively, e.g. dialogue writing or newspaper reading.
- Logical-Mathematical: the ability to use numbers effectively, to reason, and to ask questions in a logical manner, e.g. number games
- Intrapersonal: the ability to understand yourself, your feelings, motivation, strengths and weaknesses, e.g. writing in a personal journals
- Interpersonal: group work, plays, discussions, debate
- Spatial-visual: the ability to graphically represent visual or spatial ideas; e.g. maps ans use colours
- Musical: the ability to sense rhythm, pitch and melody; e.g. sing, clap to the rhythm.
- Naturalistic: the ability to recognize and classify plants, animals; w.g. field trips, collecting leaves.
Humanistic Theory: An approach centered on individuals’ feelings and values.
Metacognitive: Thinking about thinking - analyzing one’s own thinkingprocess or study strategies
Self-concept: The way the learner views himself and his own potential as a language learner may be the i most important factor in language acquisition.